SEAW#3: Asian Farmers Tackle Climate Change Issues

[News] Published on Southeast Asia Weekly (SEAW), Vol. 4, Issue 42

Phnom Penh, Cambodia (13 October 2010)

By Sok Lak

The Council for the Rural Agricultural Rehabilitation, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in cooperate with Caritas Cambodia Organization, Caritas Asia Organization and Catholic Relief Services Organization launched a Southeast Asia Farmer’s Conference in Phnom Penh on October 12th to improve the quality of life of million of farmer in Asia especially mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Under the theme Southeast Asia Farmer’s Conference: “Together to mitigate climate change problems which affect farmer agriculture activities at Southeast Asia Area”, it brought up three main purposes: to improve farmer knowledge and increase the voices of farmers to prevent their right in context of climate change; sharing good experiences and raise the problems in the context of climate change to spread policy (NAPA protocol and National Development Strategy Planning 2009-2013) in order to cut down and adapt climate change to promote food security and sustainable agriculture; and providing a discussion for representative farmers, civil society and government to understand deeply of the effects of climate change on agriculture, receive recommendation and raise the anxieties under the topic of climate change and sustainable agriculture.

Mr. Kim Rattana, Executive Director of Caritas Cambodia Organization said that this conference is very important especially for farmer communities at international and national level to meet each others to discuss all the anxieties and share all experiences around the topic of climate change to find out the solution and response to effect and impact of climate change around the world.

Climate change causing server damages to farmer’s life, living, economic loses which their crops are damaged in the field, cultivation system as the rainfall pattern are changing every year. All farmers are paying the price of climate change but they did not cause it. If the chemical-based agriculture cause green house gasses emission, it noted that it is not a single grassroots level farmers produced chemical fertilizers and pesticide in life-time. Therefore, it should have lion’s share of the mitigation and adaptation funds to allocate due to climate change, Mr. Gabrie Baroi, program officer of Caritas Asia in Bangkok emphasized.

He continued that after the discussion in this conference, all farmers will go back to their community and share the concern with fellow farmers and build advocacy constituency. On the other hand, the panelist, government representatives and representatives from other international level institutions will bring the farmers’ voice to the concerned authorities so that mechanism supportive to farmers’ life and livelihood, funds and mechanism allocated and supported to mitigation, adaptation as well as research and development come to the use for farmers life and livelihood.

H.E Tav Senghour, Secretary of. State of Ministry of Interior and 1st Vice Chairman of Council for Agriculture and Rural Development also said that it is very worrying about climate change around the world nowadays. These situations caused by natural phenomenon and human activities in modern technology life. In fact,  the developing of science make human life better and better, but it also impact global environment that cause negative phenomenon such as temperature increased, sea level increased and the number of disasters increased times to times, which affected human life and economy development especially agriculture sector.

“We all have to think together about climate change impact on agriculture and other related activities in this field that cause climate change to have a sustainable agriculture. In this case, government of Cambodia also involve and deal with these problems by giving this important task to Ministry and authority related to this kind of cases such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology, Council for Agriculture and Rural Development, National Committee for Disaster, to prepare and set up policy, strategy and measures to prevent and mitigate natural disaster especially protect people life and balance economy activities day-life,” he said.

This conference participated  by representative of Ministry, Municipal and preventative farmer come form 24 city-province in Cambodia specially  representative of Caritas Cambodia Organization, Caritas Asia Organization and Catholic Relief Services Organization with farmers of 13 countries in Asia.



ការចិញ្ចឹមសត្វព្រៃជាជម្រើសថ្មី តែអ្នកជំនាញថាបទល្មើសសត្វព្រៃអាចនឹងកើនឡើង

English version is coming soon

ដោយ សុខ ឡាក់

រដ្ឋមន្ត្រីក្រសួងបរិស្ថានថ្មីៗបានជម្រុញមន្ត្រី និងសហគមន៍គិតគូរជម្រើសថ្មីៗ និងប្លែកៗ ក្នុងការលើកកំពស់ជីវភាពប្រជាជន និង អភិរក្សជីវៈចម្រុះ តាមរយៈគិតគូរចិញ្ចឹមសត្វព្រៃដូចជាជ្រូកព្រៃ និងត្រកួត។

Wild Pigលោក សាយ សំ​អាល់ រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​ក្រសួងបរិស្ថានបាននិយាយថា  ដើម្បីអភិរក្សជីវៈចម្រុះបាន លុះត្រាតែជីវភាពប្រជាជនកើន និងធានាបាន ហើយការអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ក៏ត្រូវដើរតាមតម្រូវការជាក់ស្តែងនៅមូលដ្ជាន​​។ រដ្ឋមន្ត្រីបានលើកឡើងថា “ជ្រូកព្រៃ យើងត្រូវគិតគ្នាមើល តាមច្បាប់ព្រៃឈើ វាខុសច្បាប់ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែយើងត្រូវគិតមើលតើវាអាចទៅជាប្រូតេអ៊ីនជំនួសដូចជាការនេសាទបាទអត់? ឫមួយអាចជាចំណូលអោយបងប្អូនរបស់យើងលក់បានអត់?។”

លោកបន្តថា “ឥឡូវនេះ និយាយរឿងជាក់ស្តែងដើម្បីអភិវឌ្ឍ និងធ្វើអោយសហគមន៍រីកចម្រើន អញ្ចឹងសត្វព្រៃដូចជាជ្រូកព្រៃអាចចិញ្ចឹមលក់បាន ព្រោះបទពិសោធន៍នេះខ្ញុំឃើញនៅអាហ្រិចខាងត្បូង គេបានធ្វើ និងបានចិញ្ចឹមលក់នៅតាមសហគមន៍របស់គេ នេះជាជម្រើសមួយ។”

លោកក៏បានលើកជម្រើសថ្មីៗ ប្លែកៗក្នុងអភិរក្សជីវៈចម្រុះ និងពង្រឹងជីវភាពប្រជាជនថា “ខ្ញុំក៏ធ្លាប់អោយគំនិត បើសិនជាគាត់ចិញ្ចឹមត្រកួតយកពងទៅលក់ តើវាអាចជាចំណូលរបស់ប្រជាជនបានទេ? អាចធ្វើបានអត់? យើងត្រូវគិតរឿងអ្វីប្លែងៗបន្តិច ក្នុងសហគមន៍របស់យើង ។ យើងត្រូវធ្វើយ៉ាងដូចម្ត៉េចអោយជីវភាពរបស់ប្រជាជនកើន។ ការរៀបចំគម្រោង យើងត្រូវគិតរឿងជាក់ស្តែង”។

តាមច្បាប់ព្រៃឈើ  ការបរបាញ់ សំលាប់ ធ្វើពាណិជ្ជកម្ម សន្និធិ កែច្នៃសំណាក ឬនាំចូលប្រភេទសត្វរស់ក្នុងក្រុមនេះ [ក្រុមប្រភេទមានដោយបង្គួរ] ត្រូវទទួលពិន័យអន្តរកាល ពីរដ្ឋបាលព្រៃឈើជាប្រាក់ ចំនួនពីពីរដងទៅបីដងនៃតំលៃវត្ថុតាងពិតប្រាកដនៃទីផ្សារ ។ ជ្រូកព្រៃ ត្រកួត ចាត់ទុកជាក្រុមប្រភេទមានដោយបង្គួរ យោងតាមប្រកាសស្តីពីចំណាត់ថ្នាក់ និងបញ្ជីឈ្មោះប្រភេទសត្វព្រៃ។ ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណា ចំណូលពីពាណិជ្ជកម្មសត្វព្រៃមានតម្លៃខ្ពស់ពិសេសនៅទីផ្សារប្រទេសចិនដែលមានតម្រូវការខ្ពស់លើសត្វព្រៃ ហើយពិភពលោកក៏បានទុកពាណិជ្ជកម្មសត្វព្រៃខុសច្បាប់ជាឧក្រិដ្ឋកម្មដែលរកបានចំណូលលំដាប់ទី៤ បន្ទាប់ពីការជួញដូរអាវុធ មនុស្ស និងគ្រឿងញៀន  ។

តាមរបាយការណ៍របស់ការិយាល័យអង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិស្តីពីឧក្រិដ្ឋកម្មនិងគ្រឿងញៀន (UNODC) បានគណនាក្នុងឆ្នាំ ២០១១ ថាតម្លៃសរុបនៃពាណិជ្ជកម្មសត្វព្រៃខុសច្បាប់ជាសកលគឺមានចន្លោះពី ៨-១០ពាន់លានដុល្លារ លើកលែងឈើនិងសត្វក្នុងសមុទ្រ។ ចំពោះជួញដូរគ្រឿងញៀនខុសច្បាប់ មានតម្លៃ ៣២០ពាន់លាន់ដុល្លារ និង ជួញដូរមនុស្សខុសច្បាប់មានតម្លៃ ៣១.៦ពាន់លាន់ដុល្លារ។ ភាគច្រើននៃតំរូវការសត្វព្រៃ និងផលិតផលពីសត្វ ព្រៃ​មានដូចជា សាច់ ថ្នាំបូរាណ សត្វ​ចិញ្ចឹមសំរាប់កំសាន្ត និងពា​ន​រង្វាន់ដែលជាផលិតផលធ្វើពីសត្វព្រៃ ដែលទាំងនេះ​ជំរុញអោយការជួញដូរសត្វព្រៃ​មានច្រើន​ឡើង។

ក្នុងរយៈពេល១៥ឆ្នាំ ក្រុម​ជួយ​សង្រ្គោះ​សត្វ​ព្រៃ​រហ័សដែល​ជា​អង្គភាព​មួយ​របស់​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា ហើយ​ដែល​បាន​ទទួល​ជំនួយ​បច្ចេកទេស​ពី​អង្គការ Wildlife Alliance បាន​សង្គ្រោះ​សត្វ​បាន​ចំនួន​ជាង ៦០ ០០០ ក្បាល​ពី​ឈ្មួញ​ខុសច្បាប់។

ក្នុងការលើកកំពស់ជីវភាពប្រជាជន និងការអភិរក្សជីវៈចម្រុះ វាមានជម្រើសថ្មីៗ និងប្លែកៗដែលបានលើកឡើង ដើម្បីតុល្យភាពរវាងជីវៈចម្រុះ និងការរស់នៅរបស់មនុស្ស តែអ្នកអភិរក្សបានលើកឡើងថា សម្រាប់រយៈ​ពេល​វែងមនុស្ស​​ដែលមាន​បំណង​ចង់​ទទួល​បាន​ប្រាក់​ចំណេញ​ពី​ការ​លក់​សត្វ​ព្រៃ​បាន​អះអាង​ថា​ការ​ធ្វើ​កសិកម្ម​សត្វ​ព្រៃ​គឺ​ជួយដល់​ការអភិរក្សសត្វព្រៃដោយលុបបំបាត់នូវ ​តម្រូវ​ការ​ក្នុង​ការ​បរបាញ់​សត្វ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ព្រៃ​ តែវាមិនបានឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងទេ ដោយសកម្មភាពបរបាញ់នៅតែបន្ត។

“វាគ្រាន់តែជាទ្រឹស្តីដែលល្អមួយ តែការ​អនុវត្ត​ជាក់ស្តែង​មិន​ដំណើរការ​។ ព្រានព្រៃនៅតែបរបាញ់ដោយមិនខ្វល់ពីប្រភេទសត្វព្រៃថា វាជាសត្វកំរឫអត់។ វិធីសាស្ត្ររបស់ពា្រនព្រៃនៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជាគឺដាក់អន្ទាក់ ហើយអន្ទាក់មិនចេះវិនិច្ច័យថាប្រភេទសត្វព្រៃណាទេ។​” នេះជាការលើកឡើងពី លោក Nick Marx ប្រធានកម្មវិធីសង្គ្រោះ និងថែរក្សាសត្វព្រៃនៅអង្គការសម្ព័ន្ធមិត្តសត្វព្រៃ (Wildlife Alliance)។

លោកបាននិយាយថា អ្នកអភិរក្សសត្វព្រៃនឹងស្វាគមន៍គំនិតនៃការធ្វើកសិកម្មសត្វព្រៃ បើវាទទួលបានជោគជ័យក្នុងការការពារសត្វព្រៃនៅក្នុងជម្រកធម្មជាតិ តែជាអកុសលវាមិនបានដូចបំណងទេ។ លោកគាំទ្រអោយប្រជាជនចិញ្ចឹមមាន់ ទា ជ្រូក និងសត្វគោ ដែលនេះជាវិធីសាស្ត្រដ៏ល្អក្នុងការផ្តល់ជូននូវម្ហូបអាហារ និងមិនបង្កគ្រោះថ្នាក់ដល់ចំនួនសត្វព្រៃផង។

​ឧទាហរណ៍មួយចំនួនដែលលោក Nick Marx បានលើកឡើងក្នុងការឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងពីបញ្ហានេះ ដូចជា​ករណីការ​ធ្វើ​កសិកម្ម​សត្វ​ខ្លា​​។ សត្វ​ខ្លា​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​ចិញ្ចឹម​នៅ​ក្នុង​ប្រទេស​ចិន​និង​ប្រទេស​ថៃ​ក្នុង​ចំណោម​ប្រទេស​ដទៃ​ទៀត​អស់​រយៈពេល​ជាច្រើន​ឆ្នាំ​។ ការធ្វើកសិកម្ម​សត្វ​ខ្លា​ត្រូវ​បាន​អះអាង​ថា​ជា​ការ​ផ្តួ​ច​ផ្តើម​អភិរក្ស​មួយ​ដោយ​មនុស្ស​ដែល​ចង់បាន​ប្រាក់​ចេញ​ពី​សត្វ​ខ្លា​។ ទោះបីជាយ៉ាងណា ចំនួន​សត្វ​ខ្លា​ថយចុះ និងតិចទៅតិចទៅ​រៀងរាល់​ឆ្នាំ​ហើយ​ប្រហែល​ជា​ផុត​ពូជ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ប្រទេស​ចិន​។ ច្បាស់​ណាស់​ការធ្វើ​កសិកម្ម​មាន​ផល​ប៉ះ​ពាល់​ដល់​ចំនួន​សត្វ​ខ្លា​ព្រៃ​។ ការធ្វើ​កសិកម្មសត្វខ្លា​ផ្តល់​នូវចន្លោះ​មួយ​នៅ​ពីក្រោយ​​ពាណិជ្ជកម្ម​សត្វព្រៃខុស​ច្បាប់គ្មានការ​រំខាន​។ ករណីមួយទៀតគឹ សត្វស្វាកន្ទុយវែងត្រូវបានគេបង្កាត់ពូជនៅក្នុងទ្រុងនៅកសិដ្ឋានសត្វស្វានៅក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា ប៉ុន្តែនេះមិនបានកាត់បន្ថយតម្រូវការស្វាព្រៃទេ តែធ្វើអោយតំបន់ដែលសំបូរស្វាព្រៃក្លាយជាកំរទៅវិញ។ ករណីផ្សេងមួយទៀតគឺជាការចិញ្ចឹមក្រពើ។  ការចិញ្ចឹមក្រពើបានក្លាយជារឿងធម្មតានៅក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជាទៅហើយ តែប្រភេទចិញ្ចឹមជាប្រភេទសត្វក្រពើសៀម ហើយប្រភេទសត្វក្រពើដើមក្នុងព្រៃនៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជាស្ទើរតែបាត់ចេញពីព្រៃទៅហើយ។

ក្នុងករណីខាងលើ លោក Nick Marx បានបញ្ជាក់ថា រាជរដ្ឋាភិបាលកម្ពុជាពិតជាមានភាពឆ្លាតហើយមើលឃើញវែងឆ្ងាយនៅក្នុងករណីជាច្រើន ហើយបានចាត់ទុក “ការធ្វើកសិកម្មសត្វព្រៃ” គឺមិនបានផលប្រយោជន៍ដល់ការអភិរក្ស ហេតុនេះបានជារដ្ឋាភិបាលកម្ពុជាសុខចិត្តអនុវត្តច្បាប់ការពារសត្វទាំងអស់នៅក្នុងព្រៃ។

លោក អ៊ាង សុផល្លែត អ្នកនាំពាក្យ នៃក្រសួងកសិកម្ម រុក្ខាប្រមាញ់ និងនេសាទ បាននិយាយថាក្រសួងកសិកម្ម រុក្ខាប្រមាញ់ និងនេសាទមិនត្រឹមតែលើកទឹកចិត្តប្រជាជនចិញ្ចឹមសត្វទេ សូម្បីតែដើមឈើដូចជាដើមក្រញូងក៏លើកទឹកចិត្តអោយប្រជាជនដាំ និងប្រមូលផលពីការដំាដុះនេះ។ លោកបានបញ្ជាក់ថា ការចិញ្ចឹមសត្វព្រៃមិនខុសច្បាប់ទេ ការចិញ្ចឹមសត្វព្រៃក៏ដូចជាការដំាឈើឡើងវិញទេ តែផ្ទុយទៅវិញច្បាប់ស្តីពីព្រៃឈើលើកទឹកចិត្តទៀតដល់ប្រជាកសិករធ្វើការដំាដុះ និងចិញ្ចឹមសត្វព្រៃទៀតផង ដើម្បីចូលរួមក្នុងការអភិរក្សសត្វព្រៃ និងស្តារឡើងវិញនូវដើមឈើផង។

ឆ្លើយតបនឹងការកើនឡើងនៃបទល្មើសសត្វព្រៃពីការធ្វើកសិកម្មសត្វព្រៃ លោកសុផល្លែតនិយាយថា “បើសិនជាយើងអនុវត្តច្បាប់ បទល្មើសមិនមានទេ ទោះបីជាយើងចិញ្ចឹមក៏ដោយ មិនចិញ្ចឹមក៏ដោយ បទល្មើសត្រូវតែមានបើសិនយើងមិនបានអនុវត្តច្បាប់ ផ្ទុយទៅវិញ បើសិនជាអនុវត្តនូវច្បាប់ ការចិញ្ចឹមក៏មិននាំអោយមានបទលើ្មសដែរ។ ការអនុវត្តច្បាប់ គឺមិនត្រឹមតែមន្ត្រីរាជការ ក៏អាជ្ញាធ័រ តែសំដៅដល់ប្រជាពលរដ្ឋទាំងមូលគួរនាំគ្នាគោរពច្បាប់។” លោក សុផល្លែត បានប្រាប់ថា លោកមិនមានព័តមានពាក់ព័ន្ធពីបញ្ហានេះច្រើនទេ តែលោកដឹងថានៅមណ្ឌលគីរី មានការចិញ្ចឹមជ្រូកព្រៃដែលមាននាំចូលពីប្រទេសក្រៅ ដើម្បីអោយមានជ្រូកព្រៃក្នុងការកសិដ្ឋាន។

RUPP Joins International Climate Change Vulnerability Trainingworkshop

The Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) joined the five-day “Vulnerability Workshop and Training in Cost-Benefit Analysis”, hosted by the Hue University College of Economics in Vietnam from Jan 7-11.
The training workshop was conducted as part of the three-country research project, “Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia”, which was funded by the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
RUPP is implementing the research in the Cambodia study site, while the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) and Hue University carried it out in the Philippines and Vietnam study sites, respectively. They were joined by local government personnel from each participating country for training in economic analysis of adaptation options that were held from Jan 9-11.
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ASEAN Fun Run for Greener Space Hosts in Phnom Penh

By Sok Lak
Environmental issue have became a common problem around the world since recently, ASEAN has called for “a clean and green” ASEAN with fully established mechanisms for sustainable development to ensure the protection of the region’s environment, the sustainability of its natural resources and the high quality of life of its people as it is ASEAN’s vision for 2020. To contribute to protecting the environment and to commemorate the establishment of ASEAN, 433 students from various universities in Phnom Penh participate in the ASEAN Fun-Run for a greener space hosted by a group around 50 students comes from University of Cambodia (UC) mostly in College of Management leading by Lecturer Gina Lopz.

The ASEAN Fun-Run was held under the theme: “We Run For A Greener Space” on October 23 at Diamond Island in Phnom Penh. Saya Molika, a team leader of the ASEAN Fun-Run Committee said: “It is very great to see a lot of people join this event. It allowed them to learn how to serve the needs of the community and society and serve each other among the team by directly involving them and carry out the intention of the program.
H.E. Kao Kim Hourn, President of UC, said: “The event is important not only to ensure a healthy life for participants, but also to expand the knowledge of people to understand deeply in ASEAN since in the next year, Cambodia will be the chairman of ASEAN.”
“One more important thing is that the event will work in conjunction with the ASEAN vision 2020: a clean and green ASEAN and allow public people as well as students to understand more about environmental issues.”

Yun Davy, one organizer in charge of external relations in the ASEAN Fun Run said: “To celebrate the ASEAN Fun Run is the hope of alerting the public with awareness on the environment issue which is one of the hot issues that happens not only in Cambodia or ASEAN, but across the whole world.”
There are 12 sponsoring companies including Rattanak hospital supporting ambulance servicing, nurses, and doctors, KSK (Khemserei Italian Jewelry) with support from hand sanitizer-600 bottles, United Pharma giving US$500 cash and US$527 in products, Yamaha giving US$800, Canadia Bank giving US$600, Smart Mobile for 100 T-shirts, 600 key chains and 100 caps, Eurotech for 75 boxes of pure drinking water, PBC for US$125 in cash and 20 packages of products, DBD Engineering giving 200$ in cash, Bacchus Energy drink giving 500 cans, Amret Microfinance Institute giving 100 T-shirts and 100 caps, and Koh Pich providing the Venue for the event.
“As we are students of the University of Cambodia would like to say thank to all participants, especially to all the main sponsors who support us for both financial and help with social events. If we do not have all of these sponsors, this event could not happen as well,” the statement from the organizer said.
As the result of the ASEAN Fun-Run, there are six winners which divided into two categories, male and female. In the male categories, Sok Mongdara achieved 17:14:25 and won first place in the race and won a gold medal with some gifts from sponsors.
Ung SokKhim achieved 17:58:10 and got a silver medal with some gifts from sponsors and Srun Panhavoat achieved 19:01:00 and got a bronze medal for third place and some gifts from sponsors.

For the female categories, Chea Sophanha achieved 30:10:00 to be first place and won a gold medal and some gifts, Yous Somnith achieved 30:11:06 with a second place finish, winning a silver medal and some gifts, and Pich Bopha achieved 32:20:00 winning third place with a bronze medal and some gifts.
“I am very excited and unbelievably became the winner of the ASEAN Fun-Run. As I have liked running since I was child, I hope everyone else will also like running and joining social activities like this,” said Chea Sopanha, 18, a female student who studies at institute of foreign language in Phnom Penh “This event is not only for health but also supports the sports sector in Cambodia, reminds us to protect the environment,” she stressed. “I like to join this kind of event and do it not only to make me happy, but also, I can contribute to the effort to help society as well as protect the environment,” Ung Sokkim, 22, a male student from UC said.

Source: The Southeast Asia Weekly, October 30-November 5, 2011, Vol. 5, Issue 44, Page 12

ASEAN Tackle Transboundary Haze in Region

By Sok Lak
Cambodia and other ASEAN members together on October 18, 2011 to signify co-operative measures amongst to address the problem of smoke haze in the region from land and forest fires and to tackle transboundary haze which ASEAN Member signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution on June 10, 2002 and enter force on November 25, 2003.
In the second meeting of the Conference of the parties (COP-2) to the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution agreed to establish the ASEAN Transboundary Haze Pollution Control Fund (ASEAN Haze Fund) by provide an initial target amount of US$500,000 from the parties. At the same, it is also adopted the Financial Rules for the ASEAN Haze Fund and the Implementation Plan for the Operation of the ASEAN Haze Fund.
Mok Mareth, Minister of Environment, said that the agreement was one of the first regional arrangements in the world that binds a group of contiguous states to tackle tansboundary haze pollution resulting from land and forest fires. “It is also considered as role model for the tackling from land and forest fires, development of monitoring, assessment and early warning systems, exchange of information and technology and the provision of mutual assistance.”
However, despite enduring efforts, haze continues to plaque region annually. There is still much work to be done to eliminate haze all together. “The fires and the associated haze has adversely affected the natural environment and threatened the sustainable development and management of natural resources and biodiversity. We Cannot allow the environmental, economic and social damage caused by transboundary haze pollution to persist,” he added.
In recent years, various platform and initiatives have been developed to tackle the haze issue in individual member countries and in the region. Since 2006, the five ASEAN countries under the Sub-regional Ministerial Steering Committee on Transboundary Haze Pollution (MSC) on transboundary haze pollution, have collaborated closely and focused on local measures to tackles the fires.

Contributions of fund each have been received from Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Name. As of 31 August 2011, the balance in the ASEAN Haze Fund is US$240,329.43.

Ancient Angkor Empire’s Fall Affects from Climate Change

By Chhorng Long Heng

“The climate change is one of the core things which weakened the civilization of the ancient Angkor Empire,” H.E. Khieu Kanharith, information minister and government spokesman said during the workshop reporting on reducing disasters and risks and mitigation from climate change late last week.

“According to a study from the history of the Angkor Empire, affects from the long drought at that time, as the country needed water for supplying the rice crops as the main product for the sustenance of the Angkor city, is also the biggest issue if comparing to other countries on the earth at that time,” the Minister added. 
“Some said its fall occurred from religious conflicts and Thai attacks, but drought is a new discovery,” he added.
“The impact from climate change is a big issue and we could not assess it, therefore, we need to prepare and contribute to this work.”
“A recent study suggests that two severe droughts, punctuated by bouts of heavy monsoon rain, may have weakened the Angkor Empire by shrinking water supplies for drinking and agriculture, and by damaging the Empire’s vast irrigation system, which was central to its economy. The kingdom is thought to have collapsed in 1431 after raids from Siam,” the report from the UNDP said.  UNDP quoted from a study by Buckley and Cook in 2010.
“The empire was already facing numerous social, political and cultural problems. These were exacerbated by a drought thought to have lasted 30 years, putting pressure on the complex system of irrigation reservoirs, canals and embankments,” it added.   It is thought that this led to crop failures and the spread of infectious diseases, undermining the empire’s ability to feed its large population.
“The problem of droughts was compounded by intense rainy seasons during some years. Usually heavy rains after periods of drought caused the siltation of the irrigation infrastructure, further undermining the vitality of the water management on which Angkor had depended.”   
The report said: “The affects of changes in climate are not new for Cambodia. Indeed, recent historical analysts suggest that the collapse of the mighty Angkor Empire that stretched across much of mainland Southeast Asia was partly attributable to shifts in climate patterns. The kinds of climate shifts that influenced Cambodia during the Angkor period were part of natural climatic cycles and variation.”
However, the climate change that the country now faces is of a very different order.
It added: “The scientific evidence demonstrates that what we now know as climate change is the result of man-made actions related to the industrialization, deforestation and land use patterns which have resulted in excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the earth’s atmosphere. Moreover, the climate change that what we are witnessing is of a pace and magnitude that the world has never before experienced, and the changes are beginning to appear irreversible.
“Yet for Cambodia, many aspects remain remarkably similar to the Angkor period: the central importance of water resource management for national development, and the dependence of the population on agriculture, fisheries and natural resources,” according to the report from UNDP.
Budget Project for climate change
Climate change projects currently being implemented in Cambodia include:  NAPA follow up project on climate – resilience water management, and agriculture practice in rural Cambodia, which is funded by GEF, UNDP and the government with a budget of US$ 3.09 million.
Pilot project for climate change resilience is funded by WB and ADB with a total budget of US$ 105 million of which US $50 million comes from grants and US$ 55 million in soft loans. CCCA (Cambodian Climate Change Alliance) is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment and funded by EU, UNDP SIDA, and Danida for an approximate amount of US$ 9 million.
National REDD roadmap is being funded by WB, UNDP, FAO, and UNEP with over US$ 6 million committed and it is expected to reach more than US$ 10 million. Vulnerability assessment and adaptation programs for climate change within the coastal zone of Cambodia, which is considered necessary for livelihood improvements and the ecosystem, is being funded by UNEP for US$ 1.6 million.  Helping address rural vulnerability and ecosystem stability (HARVEST) is being funded by USIAD, and will support natural resources management, forestry and climate change from 2011-2015.  Cambodia and other LDCs have argued that at least 70 per cent of future climate change fund allocation should be directed to LDCs for building adaptive capacity and facilitating adaptation, including the current commitment of US$ 30 billion through 2012, and the future commitment of US $100 billion per year.
According to the latest technical assessment by the Ministry of Environment, in 2010, Cambodia’s temperature has risen steadily over the past 50 years. The country can expect further increases in temperature during the course of this century, with an acceleration expected after 2030. As the number of studies covering Cambodia indicate greatly varying degrees, depending on the model used, and the level of anticipated Green House Gas (GHG) emission factors in as well.
Assessments by two general circulation models indicate that, under the high emissions scenario, the rate of temperature will be at least 2 Celsius and possibly as high as 2.5 Celsius, by the end of the century.  Other studies suggest temperature will increase from 0.7 Celsius to 2.7 Celsius by the 2060s.   It clearly demonstrates that temperature in the country has risen steadily over the last 50 years and that “rapid increase in temperature is expected to occur after 2030,” according to a report from the Ministry of Environment.  Rainfall patterns are also shifting. At the same time, predicted changes for the future also need to be considered alongside more recent changes.
Floods and Disasters
Although floods are usually disastrous for humans, they may have beneficial effects too, including improving soil moisture and fertility for agriculture, ground and surface water recharging and ecological benefits for fisheries, according to a report from UNDP.  Nonetheless, one of the worst floods in Cambodia’s recent history occurred in 2000. The national committee for disaster management estimated that 750,618 families, representing 3,448, 624 people who were affected. Among these, 85,000 families (387,000 people) were temporarily evacuated from their homes and villages with 347 deaths (80 per cent of which were children). “Damage to infrastructure alone, not including lost production and other secondary impact costs was estimated at US$ 150 million.”
“Socioeconomic development and natural resources management have directly affected human vulnerabilities to flooding. Unplanned patterns of human settlement and land use have resulted in dramatic increases in the population living in the Mekong floodplains.”
 “The implication of the changing disaster risk profile for Cambodia are found not only at the level of impact on affected people, but more broadly, at the level of national and local economic costs. Between 1987 and 2007 alone, the total cost of floods has been estimated at US$ 327.1 million, with US$ 138 million in damages caused by drought.” It added:  “As technologies improve and international finance mechanisms are put in place, countries such as Cambodia may be better placed to adopt low carbon technologies at relatively early stages of their national economic development.”
Source: The Southeast Asia Weekly, September 11-17, 2011, Vol. Issue 37, Page 1

Climate Change Affects on Livelihoods for Rural People

By Sok Lak

The Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Economy and Finance and United Stated Development Program (UNDP) in collaborated to launch the 2011 Cambodia Human Development Report (CHDR) on August 30 which identifies climate change as a threat to human development gains and a source of increasing vulnerability for the poor. 

“Building Resiliency-the Future of Rural Livelihood in the Face of Climate Change,” which is the first-ever Cambodia human development report on climate change brought about enormous benefits to Cambodia as it detailed information about the current situation of climate and its impact on Cambodia especially country’s rural population who are the most vulnerable in facing climate change and strive to improve their livelihood to deal with those problems.
Speaking at the ceremony, H.E. Keat Chhon, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance, said that in the face of the global climate change Cambodia has set climate change task as a national priority in the current National Strategic Development Plan 2009-2013. “The priority should be giving to the development of human resources and institution, research, the applying of appropriate technology and financing issue aiming at strengthening the capacity to effectively respond to the climate change,” minister said. “It needs to be done particularly in the sectors that are backbone of national economy such as agriculture, water resources, fisheries, forestry, energy and physical infrastructure,” he minister added.
H.E. Mok Maret, Minister of Environment, said that responding to climate change, it needs to reform some sector which increase people’s capacity to solve problem by themselves such as reform throughout decentralization, reform information system, climate prediction, reform rural infrastructure, select best crop, and increase capacity of research knowledge. He added that government agencies, non-governmental organizations and private sector with the support of development partners can ensure the success of climate change response in Cambodia.
Douglas Broderick, UNDP Cambodia Resident Representative, said that climate change is fundamentally a development challenge and highly vulnerable to climate change impact. “This vulnerability does not necessarily come from high exposure, but rather from low adapting and coping capacities. These capacities can and should be strengthen, not only as part of a broader national response to the manifestations of climate change, but also to enhance the country’s ability to respond to all natural disasters and to lessen their impact on the poor and the near poor.”

The report from the ceremony said that although climate change is often considered an environmental issue, its effects will take a toll on human development gains. Shorter and more interns rainy seasons combined with longer and dry reasons are expected to significantly alter the country’s agriculture landscape. Predicted rises in temperature could have devastating effects on the rice crops on which many rural livelihoods rely.
Dealing with climate change marks a new paradigm for development, and the report’s recommendations emphasize the need to address the structural dimensions of poverty and vulnerability rather solely focusing on climate change adaptation. The report also argues for a well coordinated effort to build climate resilience among the rural population, particular in four key areas: water resources, agriculture, forest and fisheries.
The report also said new natural phenomenon such as slow rainfall in 2010 shows us that the rural livelihoods strongly depends on the rainfall dropping on time and when the rainy season is beginning slower than normal causing the level of Tonlesap and Mekong River to be lower should alert public to start paying attention to climate change. Local farmers also lost their agricultural crops from the Ketsana storm in September in 2009. The storm was a tragedy for local farmers and it is a strange one because climate change can be blamed for potential catastrophes.
“For the past 30 years, the ecology in Cambodia rapidly changed, the report said, adding that the change of temperature on the earth and the change of ecology at the local community level will make temperatures in the future change differently from the current climate situation.
Generally, the change in climate has been blamed on population growth, and on high demands of natural resources for heavy industry, and deforestation, smoke from heavy industry and transportation.
Source: The Southeast Asia Weekly, September 4-10, 2011, Vol 5, Issue 36, Page 6